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英语考试的种类和题型
作者:蒋树业    文章来源:辅导报    点击数:    更新时间:2006-5-20

 考试历来是我国教育教学改革的焦点和热点,在全面推进素质教育的进程中,考试更为大众所关注,“高分低能”、“误尽苍生”、“令人窒息”、“杀人的分数”、“考试正压倒一代人”之类令人瞠目的字眼都与考试联系在一起,“改改外语的考法”、“标准化考试将英语教学引入歧途”等非议外语考试之辞也不断见诸报端。在我国,由于考试的权重太大,入学的竞争太强,学生进入社会的渠道太少等原因,考试成为社会控制的重要手段,考试背负了太多太多的责任,因此考试内容与方法的处理直接导致了考试控制的效果,而且其反馈信息极其敏感,影响巨大。因此,“考试又象我们能够拿得起但放不下的一个配重物,必须知其分量,恰当运用,才能助你一臂之力。”(刘,1999)
考试是外语教学不可或缺的重要组成部分,选择考试的种类是正确运用考试的前提。考试的类型选定后,选择恰当的内容和题型就成为制约考试成功,达到检测教学目标要求的主要因素。
考试的类型很多,结合国内外的考试实践,本文拟对常见的英语考试和题型作一些介绍。
诊断性考试(Diagnostic Tests)
诊断性考试又称formative或progress tests,用以检查既往情况并据以调整今后教学。在考查以往情况方面,它着重考查作为下一阶段学习之基础的知识与技能的掌握情况,了解其薄弱环节;在调整今后教学活动方面,它着重补救以往的错失、不足。单元测试、课堂小考查或课初的复习性提问即含有诊断性测试的性质。诊断考试能为教学双方提供较为真实的、宝贵的反馈信息,是教学过程中被广泛使用的一种考试。它有三个主要用途:
1)诊断整个班级的学习情况。看看整个班级是否达到了预期的教学目标,以检验教师的教学方法是否可行;
2)看看哪些学生未达到教学目标;
3)找出未达标学生的学习问题。
诊断性考试是为了达到诊断学生学习困难的目的,因此不能只给个总分了事,必须提供更详尽、更多的反馈信息,指出考生的长处和弱点,为了能提供详尽的信息,考试内容的选择是诊断考试编写中一个很重要的方面。每次考核的范围不能很大,考核的内容必须有代表性,而且每个考核内容必须有适当的题量,这样才能对考生在某一方面的长处与问题作出可靠的推断,并对造成的原因作出合理的解释。例如,著名的《斯坦福阅读诊断考试》就分成三个等级,每一等级又有几个分数,以说明考生的强弱之处。它和一般的阅读理解考试不同。我们现在的阅读理解考试往往给几篇文章,让学生根据这些文章回答几个问题,最后给一个总分,说明学生的阅读理解水平。这样的考试只能对考生的总体阅读水平作出评估,但对考生的阅读问题和造成的原因却无能为力。《斯坦福阅读诊断考试》的第二级考试(level II)就包括6个分测验,它们是:
I.阅读理解(Reading Comprehension)、字面理解(Literal)、推断(Inferential)、总体(Total);
II.词汇(Vocabulary);
III.音节划分(Syllabication);
IV.辨音(Sound Discrimination);
V.合成(Blending);
VI.阅读速度。
第III、IV、V三个分测验测试的是词的辨认技能。这样就可以较明确地找出考生阅读中的问题及存在的原因。
分立性测验和完形测验都是诊断考试常采用的测试方法。参加诊断测试的应试者在测试后不应把注意力放在计算错误的多少,而是总结自己的错误表现在哪些语言知识和技能上,以便有针对性地补课,争取在一定时间内克服自己的弱处。
诊断考试是教师对学生的学习问题进行补课或做其它补救工作前必须进行的一项工作,它可以是十分规范的考试,也可以是教师的自行命题,目的是取得教学反馈信息。例如下面的两个关于在接引语和间接引语的诊断性考试题,口语与书面相结合,在篇章层次上较好地检测了引语转换中各方面的情形,特别是情景的设置与生活实际相关联,更能引起学生的学习兴趣和热情。
1.Imagine that you ran into your old school friend Mary the other day.She told you all about John,her husband.This is what she said to you:
Report this conversation to your partner,who has been talking to John.Compare what you both heard.


2.Rewrite this reported conversation in dialogue form.Show only the names of the speakers(Dan and Kathy),and give the exact words they said.This is Kathy's version:
Kathy:What are you planning to do about Lucy,Dan?
Dan:I don't know.I have no idea.
单元检测性考试是诊断性考试中最常见的一种,它在课堂教学和期中(末)考试中间扮演着举足轻重的角色。考试的形式应当采取听力(口试)与书面测试相结合;试题要以主观性题目为主,采取分离性与综合性考试相结合的形式,以保证单元检测性考试必要的信度、效度和区分度。
目前我国的外语教学在单元检测时大量运用了一些所谓客观题、选择题,使单元考试的诊断性功能、形成性评价功能几乎荡然无存,实乃对这类考试最糟糕的误用。
单元检测应当具有其特有的阶段性特点,其主要目的是巩固一个单元内所学习的知识,培养其运用这些知识解决实际问题的能力,因此其题型应当有别于其他类型的考试,特别是具有选拔性功能的升学考试。单元检测性考试常用的题型有:单词辨音、词语释义、动词填空、完形填空、阅读理解、搭配、听写、转换、翻译、写作、复述、改错、补全对话、单项选择等,命题应以主观题为主,兼顾少量的客观题。
《英语辅导报》本学期中学各版的“单元同步验收练习”一改往日以客观题、选择题为主的形式,进行了大胆的改造,较多采用了主观性题目,使单元检测应有的诊断性功能得到较好地贯彻,赢得外语测试专家的称赞和广大师生的认可。教育部考试中心高考英语科命题负责人刘庆思先生(1998)告诫广大外语教师:“平常的教学中要尽量少用选择题,大规模选择性考试中为保证考试的信度和效度,大量使用了选择题,是万不得已。”
命制单元检测性试题应注意灵活选择适合本单元知识内容的题型,注意题目检测相关内容和知识点的集中性和与已学知识的关联性,善于抓住本单元的重点、难点和疑点,掌握好知识点检测的深度,针对性要强。例如:
例1:一个检查shall/will等情态动词用法的练习题。
Complete each of the sentences below with several words including a future form of the verb in capitals(affirmative or negative).The sentence should express the idea in the following brackets.
Example:In any case I _________ .TELEPHONE(promise)In any case I'll telephone you this evening.
1.The football match _________ . TAKE PLACE (announcement)
2.I _________ .TAKE(refusal)
3.You _________ .FINISH(order)
4.Your shoes _________ .BE READY(promise)
5.If you don't hurry,you _________ . BE (result after condition)
6.That's quite enough noise.You _________ .BE (quiet)
7.Are you hungry?All right,we _________ .HAVE (willingness)
8.Don't you understand?I _________ .TRY (intention)
这种命题方式将语言形式与语言功能相结合,情态动词shall/will的用法及与其他情态动词的区别通过几个题目便可判断出是否已经掌握。
例2:一个同义句转换的练习。
Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it is as similar as possible in meaning to the sentence printed before it.
EXAMPLE:Immediately after his arrival things went wrong.
ANSWER:No sooner had he arrived than things went wrong.
(a)What Anna hates most about these school reunions is posing for photographs.
There's nothing ______________________________
(b)Everything Ben does seems to go wrong.
No ______________________________
(c)I firmly believed Mark to be telling the truth.
It was my ______________________________
(d)I'm particularly looking forward to visiting the Taj Mahal when I'm in India.
What ______________________________
(e)The research cannot possibly be completed unless it is adequately funded.
Adequate ______________________________
(f) I was the one charged with breaking the news to him.
It fell to ______________________________
(g)The team is the same as it was for last Saturday's match.
There have ______________________________
(h)It wasn't my fault the business failed.
Through no ______________________________
同义句转换可以较好地检测出灵活运用语言的能力。利用同义词语和同义结构等手段完成本题,可以充分体现某一单元内重要语言点和句型的掌握情况。
例3:一个练习“in短语”的填空练习。
in
bed prison jail church school a store the hospital the park pencil ink pen ballpoint the snow the rain the sun the cold the fog the air the sky the country the evening the daytime the morning the afternoon private public silence secret a loud voice a soft voice a whisper a deep voice a kind voice a good mood a terrible mood good spirits danger trouble lovepain tears debt a hurry sight pieces reach store flames stock luck Montreal Japan Sue's room my apartment five minutes half an hour a moment a little while ten days a red hat a green sweater a dirty raincoat his paiamas bare feet Complete each sentence in at least two ways,using the phrases above:
1.Everyone laughed when he came to school in his pajamas/in his bare feet.
2.I'd rather be _________ than _________
3.It's boring here indoors-let's go out _________
4.I usually read the newspaper _________
5.Poor Sam! He had to spend three weeks _________
6.She smiled sympathetically and then spoke to me _________
7.He's having a rough time and he's often _________
8.You can see from her expression that she's _________
9.Such an important meeting should be held _________
10.On an exam it's best to write your answers _________
这是一个带有综合性检测“in短语”用法的练习,各种“in+名词”的短语包罗万象,题目设计主要以意义为主,这种选择性填空能更有效地检测准确运用同类知识的能力。
例4:一个半开放型检测动名词的练习题。
Suggest suitable gerunds to complete these sentences together with additional words where appropriate.Say which of the uses the gerund is serving.
(1)_________ is my favourite summertime occupation.
(2)A dog enjoys _________ .
(3)Old people spend a lot of their time _________ .
(4)In late spring families start looking forward to _________ .
(5)That film on at the Regent Cinema is well worth _________ .
(6)_________ makes me very tired.
(7)The weather had cleared up so I suggested _________ .
(8)The cook was busy _________ .
(9)Having no coins for the telephone I asked a passerby if she'd mind _________ .
(10)_________ is more interesting than _________ .
2.From paragraph 4:
Explain in your own words as far as possible:
(i)Hitler's apparent reason for building the high-speed road system in Germany.
(ii)His real intention—and how the roads made it possible to carry it out.
3.In paragraphs 6 and 7 the author describes various solutions to the problems of traffic,and offers his own.Using your own words as far as possible,write a paragraph of not more than 100 words,explaining why he finds the proposed solutions unsatisfactory and stating the advantages he claims for his own solution.
4.Give an account,based upon paragraphs 1—5,of how the motorcar has reflected and encouraged the changing patterns of privilege and élitism in society.Using your own words as far as possible,write your account in a paragraph of not more than 100 words.
在一份日本初升高英语考试中,阅读题目是这样设计的:
问题1.With my baseball,my team is going to win.这句英文并未将Tom此时的想法完整表达出来,为什么Tom会这么认为呢,请从A~D中选出正确的一项理由。
My team is going to win _________.
A.because you didn't practice hitting baseballs
B.because you can't catch my baseball
C.because no one can hit my baseball
D.because I can catch baseballs
问题 2.将Tom and Mark,you both did a very good job.这句话用其余方式来表达,请在方框中填入1个单词来完成句子。
Tom,your team was able to win the _________ .Mark,you were able to hit Tom's baseball.
问题3.完成下列(1)~(3)题,从A~D四项中选出与文章内容相符的一项(从略)。
问题4.请依次回答下列问题。
(1)Why did Mark join a baseball team which was different from Tom's?
(2)Was Mark the only player to hit Tom's baseball in the game?
上述主观性题目的命制方式,值得在命制诊断性考试题时借鉴。
例5:一个标准的短文改错练习题。
For Questions 1-15,read the text below and look carefully at each line.Some of the lines are correct,and some have a word which should not be there.
If a line is correct,put a tick(√) by the number on the separate answer sheet.If a line has a word which should not be there,write the word on the separate answer sheet.There are two examples at the beginning(0 and 00).
Examples:
0 over

00 √
A HOLIDAY JOB
0 Congratulations on getting over your teaching diploma.Your
00 parents must be really proud of you.I've got some great news.
1 One of my father's friends who has a small travel agency,and
2 she has been very kindly given me a holiday job.It was
3 difficult in the beginning because I tend to find it very hard to
4 get up in the morning.My boss is very keen on some punctuality,
5 and because I was often late I got into terrible trouble
6 at first.So I make sure of I'm always on time now.I have to
7 work very hard and,although the pay isn't much good,I'm
8 quite enjoying myself so far yet.The main thing I've learnt
9 to do is how to give up detailed information to customers over the
10 phone.Unfortunately,I also have to make the coffee and do other
11 boring things!Sometimes there's no-one except from me in the
12 office and it gets really busy.I intend to working until the end of
13 the month and then I'm going off on a short holiday by the
14 sea,where I just hope I'll manage to relax myself on the
15 beach before going back to college in next month.
上面几例均选自英国剑桥大学考试委员会主持的EFL考试的试题或练习册,据赴英留学的中学生、大学生们讲,他们日常的测试和作业(coursework)中也很少见到选择题,除非是在最后的期末考试中才可见到一些。新加坡的大学入学英语试题全是在篇章层次上的主观性试题,比如一篇长达两三千字的文章后,列有类似下面的近20个题目:
1.Explain the meaning of the following words as they are used in the passage.You may write your answer in one word or a short phrase.resurrect(line 6);contend (line 17);compounded (line 21);mutual (line 68);advocated (line 87)
2.From paragraph 4:
Explain in your own words as far as possible:
(i)Hitler's apparent reason for building the high-speed road system in Germany.
(ii)His real intention—and how the roads made it possible to carry it out.
3.In paragraphs 6 and 7 the author describes various solutions to the problems of traffic,and offers his own.Using your own words as far as possible,write a paragraph of not more than 100 words,explaining why he finds the proposed solutions unsatisfactory and stating the advantages he claims for his own solution.
4.Give an account,based upon paragraphs 1—5,of how the motorcar has reflected and encouraged the changing patterns of privilege and élitism in society.Using your own words as far as possible,write your account in a paragraph of not more than 100 words.
在一份日本初升高英语考试中,阅读题目是这样设计的:
问题1.with my fastball,my team is going to win这句英文并未将Tom此时的想法完整表达出来,为什么Tom会这么认为呢,请从A~D中选出正确的一项理由。
My team is going to win _________.
A.because you didn't practice hitting fastballs
B.because you can't catch my fastball
C.because no one can hit my fastball
D.because I can catch fastballs
问题2.将Tom and Mark,you both did a very good job这句话用其余方式来表达,请在方框中填入1个单词来完成句子。
Tom,your team was able to win the ________.Mark,you were able to hit Tom's fastball.
问题3.完成下列(1)~(3)题,从A~D四项中选出与文章内容相符的一项(从略)。
问题4.请依次回答下列问题
(1)Why did Mark join a baseball team which was different from Tom's?
(2)Was Mark the only player to hit Tom's fastball in the game?
与其他考试相比,诊断性考试内容少,针对性强,考试时间短,规模小,方式灵活(可采用口试,听试,笔试;开卷,闭卷等),因而题型应以选择那些能够较快检测出学生知识掌握情况和能力转化情况的主观题型为主。上述主观性题目的命制方式,值得我们在命制诊断性考试题时借鉴。
根据成绩考试的要求,可选用如下一些题型:写作/作文、听写、填空、选择、阅读理解、完形填空等。试题的主客观题搭配应合理,如我国大学英语专业四级考试主客观题的比例为35∶65,其试题结构如下:



下面是几个成绩考试的题目供参考:
1.List A contains 10 phrases.List B has incomplete sentences.One phrase from List A will successfully complete a sentence in List B,though it may need to be changed slightly.Match the phrases to the sentences,and write the missing phrase in the appropriate space.
You should also make any necessary changes to the phrases so that they fit the sentences correctly.One has been done for you as an example.
PLEASE NOTE:There are more phrases than sentences.
List A—Phrases
to keep something under one's hat to be a big fish in a small pond
to hold one's own to back the wrong horse to call one's bluff
to draw the short straw to tide one over to take something on board
to lead one up the garden path to rock the boat
List B—Sentences
Example She was only 28,but she held her own with much more experienced executives.
(1)He thinks he's very important,but he _________ .
(2)The information is confidential,so please _________ .
(3)Someone had to work on Christmas Day when everyone else was celebrating and poor John _________ .
(4)That's a very interesting idea and we'll certainly _________ .
(5)Don't bring up that subject at the meeting.It will only cause a lot of argument and we don't want _________ .
(6)I knew he wasn't going to sign the deal,so I _________ .
(7)You thought Jones would get the job,but Smith got it,so I'm afraid you _________ .
(8)It will be three months before we get any income,so we shall need an extra $50,000 _________ .
这是英国牛津大学命制的一个题目,虽为考几个短语,但理解上下文的能力,句整体意义等素质的考查更为突出。
2.For Questions 1-10,read the text below.Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line.There is an example at the beginning(0).
Example:
0 ability
COMPUTERS THAT PLAY GAMES
Computers have had the(0)...ability...to play chess for many years now,and ABLE
their(1)...in games against the best players in the world has shown PERFORM
steady(2)....However,it will be years before the designers of computer IMPROVE
games machines can beat their(3)...challenge yet—the ancient BIG
board game called Go.The playing area is(4)....larger than in chess CONSIDERABLE
and there are far more pieces,so that the(5)... of moves is almost COMBINE
(6)....The game involves planning so many moves ahead END
that even the(7)...calculations of the fastest modern computers IMPRESS
are(8)....to deal with the problems of the game. SUFFICIENT
In a recent(9)....for computer Go machines,the best machine beat all COMPETE
its computer rivals,but lost(10)....to three young schoolchildren,so there HEAVY
is obviously still a lot of work to do!
(Key:1.performance 2.improvement 3.biggest 4.considerably 5.combination 6.endless 7.impressive 8.insufficent 9.competition 10.heavily)
这是剑桥大学命制的一个考查词汇的试题,完全不同于我们国内的词形转换,放在段落层次上考查确比在词、句层次上胜出一筹。
3.找出与文章整体无关的句子
In 1610,Galileo looked through his telescope at the sun and saw something that surprised him.①He expected to see a smooth yellow ball.②But that appeared in the telescope looked more like large black spots.③Sunspots can change the weather,too,by increasing the amount of ozone.④He could never explain what they were,although he watched them often.⑤Sunspots are almost as much of a mystery now as in Galileo's time.
(Key:①)
这是韩国大学入学考试的一个题目。未用较大的篇幅却考查出了推断和理解文章思想内容的能力,可谓于短小处见真功夫。
4.读以下句子,找出划线部分不通顺的句子。
①Starting up a store requires as much as $200,000.Raising that kind of money is difficult
②for someone without a business record because
③the flow of venture capital has dried up.In 1996,
④the amount of venture capital fell 53% from the previous year,to $202 mil-lion.This year
⑤the numbers expect to show a steeper decline.
(Key:②)
这也是韩国大学入学考试的题目。将语法知识考查融于篇章理解中,确也值得借鉴。
5.请将下列五个句子译成英文。
①我每天所做的事就是坐在室内读书。
②我很高兴暑假很快就要来了。
③为了呼吸新鲜的空气,我们到公园去吧!
④我想去滑冰或打棒球,那么你呢?
⑤当我有个像你一样的假期时,我将去登山。
这是'97年台北市的中考试题。这种句子汉译英的形式已为我国许多地区的中考和上海市高考所使用,实践证明,它是一个能够较好反映考生语言水平的好题型。
水平考试(Proficiency Tests)
水平考试(Proficiency Tests)主要用于测试学生的语言能力与水平,预测他将来完成某项任务的情况。和成绩考试不同,它不考虑考生先前受过何种语言训练,不考虑考生的语言背景或文化背景,一般也不以任何教学大纲、教材和教学计划作为命题的依据,它以考生今后为了胜任某项任务而必须在语言熟练程度上要达到水平作为考试的命题依据。
水平测试与学业成绩测试的显著区别在于,这种测试不与特定的课程相联系,其测试内容也不以特定的教学大纲或教材作依据。水平测试的目的并不是为了考核学生从某一外语课程中学到了哪些语言知识和技能,而是为了检验考生应试时语言知识和技能已达到何种水平,并能在何种程度上服务于一定的现实目的。因此,外语水平测试的试卷编制和分数解释往往将考生即将涉足的语言使用场景,而不是将外语课堂学习作为参照。一般而言,水平考试的内容比成绩考试的内容更广泛,涉及语言的语音、词汇、语法和综合理解与表达,包括听、说、读、写、译等各个语言技能方面。目前有些水平考试,例如运用communicative approach设计的语言水平考试,包括在具体的、与现实生活相仿的情景中衡量学生是否运用语言得体、是否达到目的、即测试交流行为。例如招收联合国译员的“联合国语文水平考试”(United Nations Organization Language Proficiency Examination)就是联合国根据其工作需要和对工作人员的要求所制定的一种标准化测试,目的在于考核应聘人员和在职培训人员的实际语文水平和运用语言的能力。再如,国际上颇具影响的美国的TOEFL考试(Test of English as a Foreign Language)和英国与澳大利亚共同设计的IELTS考试(International English Language Testing System)都属于水平考试,目的均在于考核非英语国家考生的英语水平是否能在操英语的国家里工作、生活、学习的需要。因此,服务于不同目的的水平测试其内容覆盖面和难易度往往有着明显的差异。譬如,我国教育部举办的用于选拔出国人员的“英语水平考试”(The English Proficiency Test)和TOEFL考试虽然都含有阅读理解一项,而且总阅读量大致相当,均为2600多个词,但两者在阅读材料的体裁和难易程度等方面的不同是显而易见的。
高质量的水平考试应该在周全论证考试目的、任务后制订出考试大纲,它与平时的训练和课程、教学大纲、教材虽无直接关系,但也必然反映对基本的语言技能的要求。例如我国高考NMET考试命题的依据是《全日制高级中学英语教学大纲》,它更大成份上是学业成绩考试,虽然它同时也是一种水平测试。
由剑桥大学考试委员会(UCLES)和我国教育部考试中心(NEEA)共同开发的,专为中国设计的公共英语等级考试体系PETS(Public English Test System)已向全社会推出,这是我国较科学、合理、完整的多级别英语水平考试,它对考生听、说、读、写等能力进行全面考查,将对促进英语教学改革,扭转“听不懂,讲不出,难以与外国人交流”的局面,改变我国现行英语考试过于封闭,与社会要求脱节的现状产生积极的影响。
全国中学生英语能力竞赛NEPCS(National English Proficiency Contest for School Students)较好地贯彻了既有同步性又有水平度的命题原则,已举办的六届在国内国际均产生重大影响,对在我国中学各学段实施英语水平考试作了成功的尝试。
一些著名的英语水平考试,其题型结构如下:
美国TOEFL考试:听力、结构和书面用语、阅读,全为客观性试题,题量大,总分值高;另有专门的TWE(写作)和TSE(口试)单项考试。
英国与澳大利亚共同设计的IELTS考试:听力、阅读、写作、口试,这个考试的多项选择题很少,多为填空、回答问题、排序、综合填空等形式。
英国剑桥大学考试委员会的剑桥第一证书英语考试(FCE):阅读理解、写作、英语用法、听力、口试,主客观题比例参半,有句型转换、综合填空、短文改错、(短文)词形转换、填空、判断正误、作文等主观性题型。
日本大学入学考试英语试题:选择填空、完成句子、阅读理解、补全对话,全部采用客观性题型。
新加坡大学入学英文试题(General Paper):阅读评述、阅读理解,全为主观性试题。
韩国大学入学综合能力考试英语试题:听力、阅读,全部是客观性试题。
台湾大学入学英语学科能力考试:词汇与语法、综合测验、阅读测验、阅读简答、英语作文,主客观题比例为30∶70。
我国NMET考试:单项选择、完形填空、阅读理解、单词拼写、短文改错、写作,主客观题的比例为50∶100。
大规模考试,特别是升学考试中的英语水平考试,为追求评卷的客观、公正、准确,多数采用以客观性试题为主的形式;但这类考试暴露出的弊端也是显而易见的,“高分低能”、对教学的导向偏差等使许多水平考试逐步考虑采用主客观题兼顾的方式,或单列写作、听力、口语等专项考试。
请看几个水平考试的例题:
1.观察下文的划线部分①~⑧,看它们哪些发音相同,并分别从下面的A、B、C、D中选择出一组发音相同的。
After skiing for two hours,Junko was terribly cold.Her ears felt
so cold that she thought they

might be frozen.She regretted wearing her wool jacket
instead of the down one with a hood.She'd wanted
② ③
to show off her new ski cap

with the cute bows and wooden buttons,but the
④ ⑤
hood would've been warmer.
Her hands were cold,too.She'd rubbed them a lot to keep the blood flowing,

but it hadn't worked.Maybe she should get a hot drink or something to eat in that coffee shop.Yeah,food would warm her up.She went through the door. ⑦
"Irasshaimase!"The waiter bowed and smiled.

1.A.①—④ B.①—⑧ C.②—④ D.②—⑧
2.A.③—⑤ B.③—⑦ C.⑤—⑥ D.⑥—⑦
('99日本高考题)
考查单词发音,但却放在短文中,的确很有层次;在选词上也很有讲究,如:bows/bowed,blood/hood等。我国高考在加试听力的广东等地考题中已取削单词辨音,日本这一做法值得借鉴。
2.完成句子:根据下列句子的意思,将所给A~F的选项全部填入空格中,使之成为完整的句子;并且从A~F选项中确定一个正确答案填在1~6空格中。
1.Though yesterday's baseball game (1) , (2) because there was a heavy shower.
A.an hour B.at 6∶30 C.it D.to start
E.was delayed F.was supposed
2."The shops will be closing soon.Are you ready to go?"
"Well, (3) (4) list."
A.all B.is C.I've got D.the shopping
E.to do F.to get
3.In our new airport,both departing and arriving passengers will be able to move easily (5) (6) moving walkways.
A.from B.on C.one end of D.terminal
E.the F.to the other
('99日本高考题)
这实在是一个主观题,但却以客观题的形式出现。连词成句也注重借助上下文语境,并要求只填最关键的一个答案。
学能考试(Aptitude Tests)
学能考试也称潜能考试、素质考试等,英语也称为prognostic或predictive tests,外语的学能考试其实是一种语言学习能力考试(scholastic aptitude language tests),主要预测和甄别学生学习外语的潜在能力。通过学能测试,可以预测哪些考生更适合学习外语,哪些考生可能在相同的时间内比其他考生掌握更多的外语知识和技能等,哪些考生外语成绩差而其它科目的成绩却好得多。因此,学能测试所提供的信息有助于更加科学地组织教学、合理地因材施教,以切实提高外语教学的效益。
学能测试的结果表明,以往语言学习的成功是外语学习成功最有力的标志,一个人母语掌握的程度和运用能力与他今后学习外语的潜力有密切的关系。学能考试从分析影响学生外语学习的因素着手,根据这些因素确定相应的测试方法,然后依据测试结果预测一个人学习外语的潜力。因此,学能考试的命题依据是外语学习理论和外语习得理论,也就是说,它更多地是根据心理学和心理语言学的理论来指导命题。目前世界上较有名的外语学能考试有两套。
Carroll和Sapon(1959)设计的现代语言素质测试(The Modern Language Aptitude Test,简称MLAT)用于中学生和成年人,主要针对四个方面的能力:①语音编码(phonetic coding)能力:辨别并记忆新语言中那些首次听到的语音材料的能力;②语法编码能力:分辨句子各组成部分不同语法功能的能力;③死记硬背(rote memorization)能力:记忆外语或第二语言中生词和语法规则等的能力;④归纳能力:推断新语言中的语法和理解意义的能力。Carroll和Sapon的现代语言素质测试检查发音能力、语法敏感度,机械记忆力和学习语言的归纳能力,强调逻辑思维,侧重智力考核,但对考生学习新语言的兴趣以及外语以外其它课程的成绩等不予考虑。
Paul Pimsleur(1966)的语言能力成套测试(Language Aptitude Battery,简称LAB)主要包括如下的六个方面:①外语以外其它主要课程成绩:考生根据录音上的指令,用一分钟的时间在答题纸上填上他主要课程最近的成绩;②学习兴趣:考生用两分钟的时间在答题纸相应的“五点阶”上标示出他对学习外语兴趣的高低程度;③母语词汇:考生用六分钟的时间完成二十四道题的母语词汇测试;④语言分析:考生用十二分钟分析对比十五道题中的外语表达及其母语对应形式,并推断出该外语的其它表达形式;⑤语音辨认:考生用八分钟完成三十道语音辨认题;⑥声音与符号的联系:考生用九分钟的时间完成三十道题,通过听音辨别对应拼写符号的测试。Pimsleur的语言素质测试一共需要大约四十分钟,所有考试指令和各部分时间要求均在磁带录音中提供。Pimsleur认为影响外语学习的主要因素有三个:言语智能(verbal intelligence)、学习动机(motivation)和语音能力(auditory ability),这套LAB系以中学生为对象的适应性测试。我国前几年进行英语标准化考试实验时的“虚构语言”部分就类似于LAB中的语言分析,例如:
下列句子划线部分都是虚构的词,请在A、B、C、D中选择它可能的意义。
1.Bill worked in a big office in the city,and he used to go to have his hair cut hugholy,although this was against the rule.
A.在上班时间 B.在休息时间 C.按规定时间 D.不遵守时间
2.In America,most of the letters do not travel by train any more,moleyth trains are slower than planes,and people like to send letters by air.
A.虽然 B.如果 C.因为 D.而且
全国中学生英语能力竞赛(NEPCS)智力测试的第2部分“词意猜测”也属此类。例如:
下列句子划线部分都是最普通的英语单词,合起来的意思你不一定知道,请从上下文及单词本身词义猜出这部分的意思。
1.Although Smith and Johnson were members of the same party,most of the time they did not see eye to eye with each other.
A.互有偏见 B.看法不一致 C.互不相让 D.见面不理睬
2.Though he is not good-mannered,he is always ready to help others.Everybody says he is a rough diamond.
A.stupid man B.a person with rough manners but a kind heart
C.an engineer D.a jewel
研究生入学考试GRE(Graduate Record Examination)也是学能考试,目的是测试考生是否具备将来在研究生班学习的能力。学能考试的目的是预测考生将来学习语言的潜力,至于能否真正达到其效果,目前在社会上尚有争议。
编班考试(Placement Tests)
编班考试又称配置性考试,指在学习开始时,对学生进行的全面考查,也称为“摸底测试”。所谓“编班”是为了让教师对学生的学习背景有较清楚的了解,以便有针对性地调整教材、课时和教学方法,因材施教。国外每个学期都要进行这种考试,以决定学生的分班和去向。围绕编班测试的目的,可以采用多种测试题型,但试题的覆盖面要尽量宽些,从而使测试所提供的信息更加全面;试题的难易要有一定的坡度,足以使考生拉开档次。在编班测试中,根据未来教学中将执行教学大纲的要求和测试条件的可能,既可采取口笔兼试,亦可以笔试为主,采用听写、完形填空、多项选择等各种题型。当然,在以培养学生外语交流能力为目的的外语教学中,编班测试还应避免局限于考核学生的语言知识,忽视其语言运用能力的倾向。为此,一些学者(如Piper,1983)提出应当更加有效地利用完形填空,尤其是完词填空(the C-test)等综合性测试形式。另外,鉴于传统的编班测试集中于评估语言知识的局限性,以及为了弥补这一不足所增加的面试又可能造成评分中主观成份的扩大、口试的特定场合对考生的压力降低了其语言表达的真实性等问题;也有研究者(Bowker,1984)建议,在编班测试中采用“信息补缺”(information gap)的形式,例如采用完形填空或综合填空的形式。
编班测试的题量不宜过大,题型不宜过分复杂。测试专家Harrison(1983)提出了一个编班考试的方案可供参考:



表中I、II、III部分为常项,IV、V、VI部分为选择项,测试包括前三部分,再从后三项中任选一项,共四部分,总计100分。
英语成绩考试、水平考试、学能考试、诊断性考试和编班考试的测试重点在时间和内容上有很大的区别:诊断性考试和成绩考试都与教学大纲有关,而学能考试和水平考试则与教学大纲无联系。编班考试既可以与大纲有关,也可以无关;学能考试与过去所学无关而只着眼于将来的学习,成绩考试只总结过去的学习,而与将来的学习无关。诊断性考试则既呼应过去又着眼于将来。编班考试和水平考试主要着眼于将来,但与过去的学习也有联系。不同类型考试的用途见下表:



以上只是介绍了众多英语考试类别中最常见的几种及其常用的题型。为使大家对英语考试种类有更全面的认识,特作分类如下:
1.按用途,英语考试可分为成绩考试(achievement tests)、水平考试(proficiency tests)、学能/潜能考试(aptitute tests)、诊断性考试(diagnostic tests)等几类。
2.按使用目的,英语考试可分为瞻前性考试(tests for prospective purposes)、回顾性考试(tests for retrospective purposes)、划线性考试(demarcation tests)、甄别性考试(differentation tests)、评估性考试(assessment tests)、备考性考试(tests in preparative for another tests)、科研性考试(tests for research purposes)等几类。
3.按所测语言项目的范围,英语考试可分为分离式考试(discrete point tests)、综合性考试(integrative tests)、交际性考试(communicative tests)、语用性考试(pragmatic tests)等几类。
4.按解释分数的方法,英语考试可分为常模参照性/基准参照性考试(norm-referenced tests)和标准参照性/目标参照性考试(criterion-referenced tests)等。
5.按考试项目的评估方式,英语考试可分为主观性考试(subjective tests)和客观性考试(objective tests)等。
6.按对考试对象的要求,英语考试可分为速度考试(speed tests)、难度考试(power tests)、能力考试(ability tests)、自适性考试(adaptive tests)等几类。
7.按考试对象范围,英语考试可分为大规模考试(large-scaled tests)、小范围考试(small-scaled tests)、公共考试(public tests)、公开考试(open tests)、内部考试(restricted tests)等几类。
8.按学习进程阶段,英语考试可分为编班/配置考试(placement tests)、随堂考试(classroom tests)、进度考试(progressive tests)、期中考试(mid-term tests)、期末考试(final tests)、形成性考试(formative tests)、总结性考试(summative tests)等几类。
9.按考试适用的范围,英语考试可分为一般用途考试(tests for general purposes)和专门用途考试(tests for specific purposes)等。
10.按施考的方式,英语考试可分为笔试型考试(written tests)、口试型考试(oral tests)、实践型考试(practical tests)、直接性考试(direct/performance tests)、间接性考试(indirect tests)等几类。
11.按考试的主办方式,英语考试可分为官方考试(official tests)、非官方考试(non-official tests)、强制性考试(compulsory tests)、自愿性考试(voluntary tests)、营利性考试(commercial tests)、非营利性考试(non-commercial tests)等几类。
12.按考试实施频度,英语考试可分为一次性考试、定期反复性考试、不定期反复性考试、随时性考试等几类。
13.按试题卷本,英语考试可分为固定卷本考试(fixed-version tests)、组合式考试(modular tests)、分级考试(graded tests)、自适性考试(adaptive tests)等几类。
14.按考试的选拔性目的,英语考试可分为升学考试(matriculation tests)和竞赛性考试(contest tests)等。
15.按考试的规范程度,英语考试可分为标准化考试(standarlized tests)和非标准化考试(non-standarlized tests)等。
英语考试的种类繁杂,探索适应素质教育要求的英语考试是当前摆在我们面前的一个重大课题。在我国,无论中小学平时的英语测验或阶段性考试,还是中考、高考等选拔性考试,无论从命题的内容、命题的形式、题型、试题结构等都存在着亟待解决的严重问题,需要大家作进一步的探索。

 

 

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